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The California State University


  • Wallace, I.J., K. Middleton, S. Lublinsky, S.A. Kelly, S. Judex, T. Garland, Jr. and B. Demes. 2010. Functional significance of genetic variation underlying limb bone diaphyseal structure. American Journal of Physical Anthropology.

  • Kolb, E.M., S.A. Kelly, K.M. Middleton, L.S. Sermsakdi, M. Chappell and T. Garland, Jr. 2010. Erythropoietin elevates VO2,max but not voluntary wheel running in mice. Journal of Experimental Biology 213: 510-519.

  • Middleton, K., B. Goldstein, P. Guduru, J. Waters, S. Kelly, S. Swartz and J. Garland. 2010. Variation in within-bone stiffness measured by nanoindentation in mice bred for high levels of voluntary wheel running. Journal of Anatomy 216: 121-131.

  • Eisenmann, J., E. Wickel, S. Kelly, K. Middleton and T. Garland. 2009. Day-to-day variability in voluntary wheel running among genetically differentiated lines of mice that vary in activity level. European Journal of Applied Physiology: 613-619.

  • Malisch, J., C. Breuner, E. Kolb, H. Wada, R. Hannon, M. Chappell, K. Middleton and T. Garland. 2009. Behavioral Despair and Home-Cage Activity in Mice with Chronically Elevated Baseline Corticosterone Concentrations. Behavior Genetics: 192-201.

  • Keeney, B., D. Raichlen, T. Meek, R. Wijeratne, K. Middleton, G. Gerdeman and T. Garland. 2008. Differential response to a selective cannabinoid receptor antagonist (SR141716. Behavioural Pharmacology: 812-820.

  • Swartz, S. and K. Middleton. 2008. Biomechanics of the bat limb skeleton. Cells Tissues Organs: 59-84.

  • Middleton, K., C. Shubin, D. Moore, P. Carter, T. Garland and S. Swartz. 2008. relative importance of genetics and phenotypic plasticity in dictating bone morphology and mechanics in aged mice. Zoology 111: 135-147.

  • Middleton, K., S. Kelly and T. Garland. 2008. Selective breeding as a tool to probe skeletal response to high voluntary locomotor activity in mice. Integrative & Comparative Biology 48: 394-410.

  • Hannon, R., S. Kelly, K. Middleton, E. Kolb, D. Pomp and T. Garland. 2008. Phenotypic effects of the "mini-Muscle" allele in a large HR x C57BL/6J mouse backcross. Journal of Heredity: 349-354.

  • Clarke, J. and K. Middleton. 2008. Mosaicism, Modules, and the Evolution of Birds. Systematic Biology 57: 185-201.

  • Lavin, S., W. Karasov, A. Ives, K. Middleton and T. Garland. 2008. Morphometrics of the avian small intestine compared with that of nonflying mammals. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: 526-550.

  • Swartz, S. and K. Middleton. 2007. Biomechanics of the Bat Limb Skeleton. Cells Tissues Organs 187: 59-84.

  • Clarke, J. and K. Middleton. 2006. Bird evolution. Curr Biol: 350-354.

  • Tian, X., J. Iriarte-Diaz, K. Middleton, R. Galvao, E. Israeli, A. Roemer, A. Sullivan, A. Song, S. Swartz and K. Breuer. 2006. Direct measurements of the kinematics and dynamics of bat flight. Bioinspiration & Biomimetics.

  • Middleton, K. 2001. morphological basis of hallucal orientation in extant birds. Journal of Morphology: 51-60.

  • Middleton, K. and S. Gatesy. 2000. Theropod forelimb design and evolution. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society: 149-187.

  • Gatesy, S., K. Middleton, F. Jenkins and N. Shubin. 1999. Three-dimensional preservation of foot movements in Triassic theropod dinosaurs. Nature (London): 141-144.

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Educational Background

  • 1996-2003 – Ph.D., Brown University, Providence, RI (Ecology & Evolutionary Biology)

  • 1992-1995 – B.S., Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (Biology)

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Positions & Honors

  • 2008-Present – Visting Researcher, Department of Biology, UC, Riverside

  • 2007-Present – Asst. Professor, California State University, San Bernardino

  • 2005-2007 – NIH Ruth Kirschstein National Research Service Award Fellow, Brown University & UC, Riverside

  • 2002-2005 – Post-Doctoral Research Associate, Brown University

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